This expression, “glorious ones,” is used most often in the Dead Sea Scrolls and in apocalyptic and Gnostic literature to refer to angels. While it does not appear that these false teachers explicitly and openly blasphemed God or Christ, they did disparage angels. This behavior is, however, unique in the NT (except for the parallel passage in 2 Pet. 2: 10) and so probably indicates a “specific and actual case of false teaching and not a generalized caricature of heresy” (Bauckham, WBC, 57).
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